Who are refugees?
1951 UN Refugee Convention
There are many definitions of a refugee, ranging from the most restrictive to the most inclusive. After the Second World War, the UN member states drew up what is now known as the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. It originally applied to those who were displaced in Europe before 1951. In 1967, a protocol to the Convention removed the temporal and geographical restrictions.
The Convention defines a refugee as a person who
Owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of their nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail him/herself of the protection of that country.
Other refugee definitions
Since the above definition refers only to individuals in fear of persecution, regional organisations in both Africa (African Union 1969) and Latin America (Organisation for American States 1984) have developed wider definitions which include mass displacements which occur as a result of social and economic collapse in the context of conflict.
Internally displaced persons
Internally displaced persons are “persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalised violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognised State border.” (Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, Introduction, paragraph 2).
The majority of forcibly displaced persons in the world are displaced within their countries of origin. Nearly 12 of the 26 million persons internally displaced are from Africa, in particular Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan.
In deciding with whom to work, JRS feels that the scope of existing international conventions is too restrictive. It therefore applies the expression ‘de facto refugee’ to all “persons persecuted because of race, religion, membership of social or political groups”; to “the victims of armed conflicts, erroneous economic policy or natural disasters”; and, for “humanitarian reasons”, to internally displaced persons, that is, civilians who “are forcibly uprooted from their homes by the same type of violence as refugees but who do not cross national frontiers .”
An asylum seeker is an individual who has made an application for protection but whose application has not yet been determined. If an asylum seeker’s application is successful, s/he is then recognised as a refugee, and this confers certain rights and obligations according to the legislation of the receiving country.
The practical determination of whether a person is a refugee is left to certain government agencies within the host country or to the UN refugee agency (UNHCR). The percentage of successful asylum applications varies from country to country, even for the same nationalities. After waiting years for their claims to be processed, many asylum applicants who receive a negative response to their application cannot be returned home, leaving them in a certain limbo. Unsuccessful asylum seekers who do not leave the host country are thereafter usually considered to be undocumented migrants. Asylum seekers, particularly unsuccessful applicants, are increasingly held in detention centres, particularly in Europe and the US.
It can often be virtually impossible for asylum seekers to leave their countries of origin with adequate documentation and visas. Therefore, most asylum seekers are forced to undertake often expensive and hazardous journeys to enter countries irregularly where they can seek and be granted refuge.
Prima facie refugee
In response to conflicts and mass human rights abuses, individuals often flee countries en masse. In these circumstances, it would be impractical and unnecessary to examine each individual asylum application. These individuals are referred to as prima facie refugees. Examples of refugee movements like this can be found in Sudanese fleeing to Chad, Chadians fleeing to the Central African Republic, Somalis to Kenya, Sri Lankans fleeing to India etc.
Statelessness is where there exists no recognised state in respect of which an individual has a legally meritorious basis to claim nationality, or where s/he has a legally meritorious claim but is precluded from asserting it due practical considerations such as cost, circumstances of civil disorder, or fear of persecution. The UN refugee agency (UNHCR) estimates that there are approximately three million stateless persons in the world. Statelessness is often a cause of forced migration as individuals move on to regions of the world where they could be offered basic rights and escape human rights abuses.
Individuals who cross national borders without adequate documentation (passports, visas, etc.) are referred to as undocumented migrants (or erroneously as illegal immigrants, as irregular entry is rarely a criminal offence). Although undocumented migrants may be in need of international protection, frequently they do not seek asylum. While significant numbers of undocumented migrants would not be recognised as refugees under the 1951 Geneva Convention, this does not mean they are not in need of international protection. Many have fled extreme poverty, generalised conflict, economic collapse etc. In host countries, they are regularly denied access to basic services – such as social welfare, education and healthcare – and the right to work.
Refugee status is meant to be a temporary phase. Most groups working with refugees agree that there are three solutions to the problem of refugeehood:
Experience working with forced migrants leads JRS to believe that the majority (if not the overwhelming majority) wish to be able to return home in safety and dignity. Safety implies that their return takes place under conditions of legal safety (such as freedom from persecution etc), physical security, and material security (access to means of livelihood). Return in dignity means that refugees can return unconditionally at their own pace, that they are not arbitrarily separated from family members, and that they are treated with respect and full acceptance by their national authorities, including the full restoration of their rights.
Local integration as a durable solution combines three dimensions. Firstly, it is a legal process whereby refugees attain a wider range of rights in the host state. Secondly, it is an economic process through which a sustainable livelihood and a standard of living comparable to the host community can be obtained. Thirdly, it is a social and cultural process of adaptation and acceptance that enables refugees to participate in the social, political and cultural life of the host country and live without fear of discrimination. JRS believes that this process should begin as soon as possible to prevent refugees from becoming dependent on aid and thus preventing the realisation of any of the durable solutions.
Third country resettlement
Despite the best efforts of countries of asylum to help people who have fled their homes and country, the trauma and suffering of refugees does not simply disappear. They are rarely able to simply resume everyday activities in a new setting and live and work as they did before. Sometimes the threats that caused refugees to leave their homes in the first place are also present in the country of refuge. There may be a risk that refugees be forced to repatriate before they are willing to, or there may be new sources of danger for individuals with special needs or for parts of the refugee community.
When individual refugees are at risk, or for some reason are unable to return home or integrate into the country of asylum, they may seek resettlement to a third country. Through resettlement, refugees can gain legal protection – residency and often eventually citizenship – from governments who agree, on a case-by-case basis, to open up their communities to new members.
Where are refugees
Refugee countries of origin / host countries
There are more than 45 million forcibly displaced persons living in the world today, including refugees, internally displaced persons and other forcibly displaced migrants. In general they come from Africa, Asia and Latin America (the vast majority of displaced Latin American are from Colombia), and they generally seek asylum in neighbouring countries. Between three-quarters and two-thirds of the world’s forcibly displaced population live in Africa, Asia Pacific, South Asia, and Latin America, whereas only 13 percent of forcibly displaced persons live in Europe and approximately one percent in North America